Argued: March 5, 2019
A. McNamara, Esq. (orally), Drake Law, LLC, Berwick, for
appellant Abdiaziz Hussein
S. Robinson, District Attorney, Michael B. Dumas, Asst. Dist.
Arty., and Lisa R. Bogue, Asst. Dist. Atty. (orally),
Prosecutorial District III, Lewiston, for appellee State of
SAUFLEY, C.J., and ALEXANDER, MEAD, GORMAN, JABAR, HJELM, and
Abdiaziz Hussein appeals from judgments of conviction for
failure to sign a criminal summons (Class E), 17-A M.R.S.
§ 15-A(1) (2018), refusing to submit to arrest by
physical force (Class D), 17-A M.R.S. § 751-B(1)(B)
(2018), and assault (Class D), 17-A M.R.S. § 207(1)(A)
(2018), entered by the court (Androscoggin County,
Lawrence, J.) following a jury trial. Hussein argues
that the trial court abused its discretion by excluding from
evidence a cellphone video that showed some of the events
that occurred during his arrest. We agree and, as a result,
vacate the convictions and remand the case for a new
Viewed in the light most favorable to the jury's verdict,
competent evidence in the record supports the following
facts. See State v. Fahnley, 2015 ME 82, Â¶ 2, 119
On November 10, 2017, an officer with the Lewiston Police
Department went to Hussein's apartment in Lewiston to
serve him a criminal summons. After the officer was in the
apartment, he told Hussein that he was issuing him a criminal
summons and that Hussein "ha[d] to sign the
summons." The officer emphasized, however, that the
summons simply established a court date for Hussein and that
signing it was not an admission of guilt. After Hussein
repeatedly refused to sign the summons, the officer said,
"Okay, you don't want to sign the summons,
you're under arrest."
Hussein then attempted to "run," but the officer
"grabbed a hold of" Hussein and twisted his arm
into what the officer described as an "arm bar."
Despite the arm bar, Hussein punched the officer in the face.
As the officer persisted in attempting to arrest Hussein, he
tried to pin Hussein to the floor of the apartment, but
Hussein kept "flailing and fighting violently." At
some point during these events, the officer noticed that
Hussein's sister was filming the arrest on her cellphone.
The officer called for backup as he attempted to subdue
Hussein. Shortly thereafter, additional officers arrived and
took Hussein into custody.
The State charged Hussein with refusing to sign a criminal
summons (Class E), 17-A M.R.S. § 15-A(1), refusing to
submit to arrest by physical force (Class D), 17-A M.R.S.
§ 751-B(1)(B), and assault (Class D), 17-A M.R.S. §
207(1)(A); Hussein pleaded not guilty to all charges. During
pretrial discovery, Hussein produced his sister's
cellphone video of the arrest.
On July 19, 2018, two weeks after a jury had been selected,
and one day before the trial was to start,  the State
filed a motion in limine requesting that it be permitted to
"inspect the entire recording." The State requested
that, absent a showing by Hussein that the video captured the
entire incident, the video "be excluded from the
trial" because it would be "misleading for the jury
to see a video capturing only the incident after the warnings
were given to the defendant regarding his failure to sign the
criminal summons, after the defendant attempted to flee the
room, and after the assault or [the arresting officer]. The
court viewed the video with counsel for the State and Hussein
and subsequently denied the State's motion-all on the
same day it was filed.
On the next day, July 20, 2018, the court held a one-day jury
trial. The State's case relied exclusively on the
testimony of the arresting officer and one of the other
officers who had responded to the arresting officer's
request for assistance. At trial, the arresting officer
testified that he had seen Hussein's sister record a
portion of the arrest on her cellphone. Hussein's counsel
then attempted to authenticate the video through the officer.
Although the officer acknowledged that the recording fairly
and accurately represented a portion of his interaction with
Hussein, the court excluded the video, reasoning, "With
respect to the attempt to authenticate this particular piece
of evidence through [the officer], given his testimony as to
his belief that it is not complete, [the] [c]ourt will
sustain the State's objection." Hussein asked the
court to reconsider its ruling, but the court again sustained
the State's objection.
Hussein s counsel then told the court that he wanted to use
the video to impeach the arresting officer's testimony.
The court sent the jury out of the courtroom and had the
arresting officer review the video again. The officer again
testified that the video fairly and accurately represented
what happened during the period of time captured on the
video. Hussein's attorney asked the arresting officer a
series of questions about the video, and then indicated that
he was ready to have the jury brought back. When the jury
returned, Hussein's counsel continued in his
cross-examination of the arresting officer, and, although the
jury had not seen the video, what the video showed was
discussed in great detail in front of the jury:
Q: Corporal ..., in the full two minutes leading up to the
moment that the other officers secure Mr. Abdiaziz-excuse me,
Mr. Hussein in handcuffs, he did not-he, in fact, did not
punch at you, right?
A: He could not.
Q: But the specific answer to the question is he did not
punch at you, correct?
A: Yes. He could not.
Q: And he, at most, had his right leg or his right knee drawn
A: Yes, he had his right leg, yup, shoved into my side.
Q: And, in fact, he did not kick you, did he?
A: He's trying to push me on with his leg, yeah, Be more
specific with me 'cause you're not letting-you're
asking me did he kick me. I-once I had him pinned and I got
my body weight on him, he's got his leg up into my ribs,
and I'm keeping my body weight on there so he doesn't
drive me because he's trying to fight free. He's
not-he's not complying. He's still fighting.
If you looked at what your question is ... I can't
honestly answer your question with a yes or no because he was
still fighting on the floor. He's got his leg up.
It's in my ribs and I've got him pinned with my body
weight. If I was up, yeah, he probably could have kneed me
with his knees.
Q: But he didn't?
A: He couldn't because I had my body weight on him. Yes.
Yes, he did not knee me is what you're asking because I
did not allow him to do that.
Q: So he didn't strike you with his knee, and he
didn't kick you with his feet, did he?
A: In the last portion of the video, no, sir.
Q: The two minutes up to the time that the other officers
secured him, correct?
Q: Beyond that, he has a pen in his left hand that whole two
A: No. I think that come from the trash can and th[e]n went
flying over. I just see the video the other day. I just
viewed this and he has a pen in his hand laying on the floor.
Where it came from I don't know.
Q: But a moment ago I asked you he has a pen in his hand this
whole time, right, and you said yes?
A: Well, you're saying the whole time. What is the whole
Q: The two minutes.
A: For this video, ...